ATFS Standard 5: Indicator 5.3.1:
Landowner should make practical efforts to promote forest health, including prevention, control, or response to disturbances such as wildland fire, invasive species and other pests, pathogens, or unwanted vegetation, to achieve specific management objectives.


Common Forest Diseases (N.C. Forest Service)
Diseases are caused by pathogenic organisms (pathogens) that are infectious and transmissible, meaning that pathogens infect (enter) the tree, cause a physiological disruption, and then can spread to other trees.

Damaging Insect and Disease Pests in the Southern United StatesĀ  (Southern Group of State Foresters)
This document provides information about the causes, occurrence, impact and control of native and non-native insects and diseases found throughout the Southern United States.

Diseases That Can Affect N.C. Forests (N.C. Forest Service)
This is a comprehensive document provides information on the cause, host, signs/symptoms, cycle, importance, management, timeline and range of diseases that impact North Carolina’s forests. It includes photographs of trees impacted by the diseases to help with identification.

Current Forest Health Concerns (N.C. Forest Service)
While extreme drought is behind us for now, effects of previous drought or periods of abnormally dry conditions can last years. When trees are stressed, there are many opportunistic insects and diseases that attack them because they are less able to defend themselves. Learn more about these threats.

Oak Diseases & Insect Pests (Clemson University)
Although oak trees (Quercus species) are well adapted to South Carolina, they can be commonly affected by many pests and diseases. Maintaining healthy oak trees, by following recommended cultural practices, is the first line of defense in preventing most of these problems.

Forest Entomology (N.C. Forest Service)
Insects can cause significant growth loss, degrade lumber, make trees vulnerable to attack by secondary insects and diseases, spread tree pathogens and can be a serious nuisance. However, most insects that feed on trees do not cause serious harm.